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Other preventive measures that target youth drivers include "zero tolerance" laws linking evidence of alcohol on the breath with suspension or revocation of driving privileges. Given the long latency period between infection and symptoms, most of these individuals were infected as adolescents.
The results of two decades of evaluative research have yielded considerable information suggesting that a number of approaches to adolescent ATOD use prevention do not work. More than 126,000 cases of AIDS among individuals ages twenty to twenty-nine had been diagnosed in the U. Estimates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adolescents range from 112,000 to 250,000 in the United States, although actual prevalence is not known because representative data are not available.
Botvin, Gilbert J.; Baker, Eli; Dusenburg, Linda; Botvin, Elizabeth M.; and Diaz, Tracy. "Long-Term Followup Results of a Randomized Drug Abuse Prevention Trial in a White Middle-Class Population." Journal of the American Medical Association 2061112. An estimated three million cases of STIs other than HIV are acquired each year among persons between ten and nineteen years old.
Youth under the age of twenty-five account for two-thirds of the total number of cases of STIs diagnosed annually.
Rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus are particularly high among sexually active female teens.
In the community and environmental domains, strongly held adult values antithetical to substance use constitute protective factors, as do clearly communicated and consistently enforced regulations concerning use.
Strategies designed to increase knowledge and convey information about the risks and dangers of drug use are generally recognized to be failures, in part because of the lack of association between knowledge and use. "Alcohol Initiation Outcomes of Universal Family-Focused Preventive Interventions: One-and Two-Year Follow-Ups of a Controlled Study." Journal of Studies on Alcohol 3111. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, News and Information Services. Among HIV positive thirteen to nineteen year-old females who had not developed AIDS, 49 percent of the cases were associated with exposure through sexual contact, 7 percent through injection drug use, 1 percent through blood exposure, and 43 percent through a risk not reported or identified.
Indeed, all largely didactic approaches to prevention education, such as Project "Drug Abuse Resistance Education" (Project DARE), are widely understood to be ineffective, especially if they concentrate on long-term risks. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Among males in the same age group, 50 percent were associated with male to male sex, 5 percent with injection drug use, 5 percent with both male to male sex and injection drug use, 5 percent with hemophilia or coagulation disorder, 7 percent with heterosexual exposure, 1 percent with blood exposure, and 28 percent with an unreported or unidentified risk.
The "Reconnecting Youth" Program, described by Leona Eggert and colleagues in 1994, is designed for high school students who manifest poor academic achievement or who are at high risk for dropping out and other problem behaviors.
In the family domain, the Iowa Strengthening Families Program, described by Richard Spoth and colleagues in 1999, has received considerable attention.
The most salient of these is the "Risk and Protective Factor" framework, which has identified a variety of psychosocial factors associated with ATOD use.